Trade and Poverty in India

Course Outline

International Trade

Course (61 videos)

Trade and Poverty in India

Instructor: Tyler Cowen, George Mason University

After gaining its independence, India moved in a direction of high tariffs and protectionism. In 1990, the average tariff in India was about 80%, meaning higher prices for consumers and less effective and efficient production of goods and services. But, in 1991, reform took hold and India opened their economy to global trade. Tariffs dropped from 80% in 1990 to 37% in 1996. How did gains from trade affect poverty? An increase in exports led to more jobs at home and an increase in real wages. While other reforms happened simultaneously, it is estimated that 38% of the reduction in poverty between 1987-2004 is due to trade.

Teacher Resources



Turn captions on or off:

  1. If captions are available the (CC) icon will be visible on the player.
  2. To turn captions on, tap (CC).
  3. To turn captions off, tap (CC) again.

Select caption language: 

  1. Click the settings icon (⚙) at the bottom of the video screen.
  2. Click Subtitles/CC.
  3. Select a language.


Contribute Translations!

Join the team and help us provide world-class economics education to everyone, everywhere for free! You can also reach out to us at for more info.

Submit subtitles




We aim to make our content accessible to users around the world with varying needs and circumstances.

Currently we provide:

Are we missing something? Please let us know at